Aluminium hydroxide – Al(OH)3
What is Aluminium Hydroxide?
Al(OH)3 is amphoteric in nature with chemical name Aluminium hydroxide.
Aluminium hydroxide is also called Aluminic acid or Aluminic hydroxide or Aluminium (III) hydroxide. It is found in nature in the form of mineral gibbsite and its polymorphs viz doyleite, nordstrandite, and bayerite.
Aluminic hydroxide is an amorphous powder white. It is insoluble in water but soluble in alkaline and acidic solutions.
Aluminium Hydroxide Structure – Al(OH)3
Properties of Aluminium hydroxide – Al(OH)3
|Molecular weight of Al(OH)3||78.00 g/mol|
|Density of Aluminium hydroxide||2.42 g/dm3|
|Flashpoint of Aluminium hydroxide||Non-flammable|
|Melting Point of Aluminium hydroxide||300 °C|
Aluminic hydroxide has a typical structure of metal hydroxide consisting of hydrogen bonds. It comprises double layers of hydroxyl groups along with aluminium ions which occupy 2/3rd of the octahedral holes which are formed between the two layers.
Gibbsite is amphoteric and acts as a Brønsted-Lowry base to yield a salt by picking up hydrogen ions and neutralizing the acid. The reaction is as follows:
3HCl + Al(OH)3 → AlCl3 + 3H2O
It acts as a Lewis acid in bases. It takes away an electron pair from the hydroxide ions. The re4action is as follows:
Production of Aluminium hydroxide
Commercially used aluminium hydroxide is manufactured by the Bayer process. It is carried out by dissolving bauxite in sodium hydroxide solution at a temperature range up to 270 °C. The waste is removed and the sodium aluminate solution is allowed to precipitate. Therefore, the precipitate obtained is aluminium hydroxide. Alumina or aluminium oxide can be obtained from aluminium hydroxide by the process of calcination.
Step-1 : Al2O3.2H2O + 2 NaOH → 2 NaAlO2 + 3 H2O
Step-2 : NaAlO2 + 2 H2O → Al(OH)3 + NaOH
Step-3 : 2 Al(OH)3 → Al2O3 + 3 H2O
Al(OH)3 Uses (Aluminium hydroxide)
- Aluminium hydroxide is used as a flame retardant in plastics.
- Used as an antacid.
- Used in aluminium Hydroxide gel.
- Used to manufacture activated alumina.
- Used as a filler in cosmetics.
- Used as a chemical intermediate.
- Used as a soft abrasive for plastics.
- Used in glass additive to increase resistance to thermal shock.
- Used in waterproofing fabrics.
- Used in the manufacturing of glass.
Prolonged exposure to Aluminium(III) hydroxide it causes irritation in eyes, respiratory system, and skin. When comes in contact with water it causes a violent explosion.
Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs
What does aluminium hydroxide do?
Aluminium is a metal that occurs naturally. The antacid is the hydroxide of aluminium. Aluminium hydroxide is used in the treatment of heartburn, stomach pain, sore stomach or indigestion with acid. Aluminium hydroxide is also used in humans with other kidney disorders to reduce phosphate levels.
Is Aluminium hydroxide safe in cosmetics?
Hydroxide in aluminium. The synthetic ingredient which acts as an opacifier. Primary applications include agent and absorbent for painting. There is no known skin toxicity to the aluminium hydroxide.
What is another name for aluminium hydroxide?
Aluminium hydroxide is an over-the-counter antacid drug used to treat peptic ulcer and hyperphosphatemia.
Is aluminium hydroxide a weak base?
Aluminium hydroxide has molecular formula Al(OH)3 as a chemical compound. … For example, in aluminium hydroxide the hydroxide (OH) can act as a weak base when reacting with the strong acid, hydrochloric acid (HCl). A weak base is a base that partially dissociates in solution, or breaks apart.
Is aluminium hydroxide dangerous?
Side effects of aluminium hydroxide include intense stomach pain or constipation, lack of appetite; discomfort while urinating; muscle weakness, fatigue; extreme drowsiness.
Aluminium hydroxide Formula
Aluminium hydroxide Formula
Aluminium hydroxide is a inorganic basic compound used as intermediary in organic synthesis and as additive in pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries.
Formula and structure: The aluminium hydroxide chemical formula is Al(OH)3 and its molar mass is 78.00 g mol-1. The molecule is formed by the aluminium cation Al+3 and three hydroxyl anions CO3-2. The structure of the aluminium hydroxide lattice depends on the mineral from it is extracted because the ions show different arrangements. Most of the lattice are hexagonal or orthorhombic. Its chemical structure can be written as below, in the common representations used for organic molecules.
Occurrence: Aluminium hydroxide, similar to other metals carbonates, hydroxides and sulfates, is found in mineral ores of gibbsites, bayertute, doyleite and strandite.
Preparation: Although aluminium hydroxide is largely found in many geological systems in nature, it is mostly produced by the Bayer and sintering processes to obtain alumina from the mineral bauxite. Thus, 97% of the world aluminium hydroxide is obtaining through the treatment of bauxite with caustic soda yielding sodium aluminate, which is decomposes by stirring to obtain an aluminium hydroxide precipitate:
NaAl(OH)4 → Al(OH)3 + NaOH
Other processes to obtain aluminium hydroxide are the hydrothermal technique, the micro-emulsion or the Sol-gel. These methods have the advantage of producing an compound with a higher level of purity.
Physical properties: Aluminium hydroxide is an odorless, white amorphouse solid. Its density is 2.42 g mL-1. Aluminium hydroxide melting point is 300 ºC. It is insoluble in water and ethanol, but soluble in acids and alkalis solutions.
Chemical properties: Aluminium hydroxide is an amphoteric compound, which means that the substance presents basic or acid characteristics. Consequently, the aluminium hydroxide is soluble in both: acids (reaction I) or alkalis (reaction II) solutions:
Al(OH)3 + 3 H+ → Al+3 + H2O (I)
Al(OH)3 + OH– → AlO2– + H2O (II)
Uses: Aluminium hydroxide has a great variety of application in chemical industry, some of these uses are as plastic, rubber, polymer and epoxy resin filler, flame retardant, additive for glass and paper. In pharmacy, it is used as an antacid for the gastritis and ulcer treatment and it is also an additive in some vaccines and works as excipient in the production of some drugs. However, aluminium hydroxide is mostly used as raw material in the production of alumina (aluminium oxide) to produce aluminium metal.
Health effects / safety hazards: The aluminium hydroxide in high concentration causes serious damage to the health. It may cause damage in lungs. It is not flammable.
Aluminum hydroxide, the formulation of which is Al(OH)3, can be found in nature in the following forms: gibbsite, which is a mineral, and doyleite, nordstrandite and bayerite, all of which are rare polymorphs. Based on its properties, we can say that aluminum hydroxide appears to be an antacid. It has various uses, primary among which is medical application.
There are many different forms of aluminum oxide, including both crystalline and non-crystalline forms. It’s an electrical insulator, which means it doesn’t conduct electricity, and it also has relatively high thermal conductivity. In addition, in its crystalline form, corundum, its hardness makes it suitable as an abrasive. The high melting point of aluminum oxide makes it a good refractory material for lining high-temperature appliances like kilns, furnaces, incinerators, reactors of various sorts, and crucibles. The chemical formula for aluminum hydroxide is Al(OH)₃.
Properties of aluminum hydroxide
The purified aluminum hydroxide has form of bulky powder of white color or granules with density nearly 2.42 g per mL. Aluminum hydroxide won’t dissolve in water, but will dissolve only in bases and acids. You can expect aluminum hydroxide to act as an amphoteric substance in water. If a strong base is present, aluminum hydroxide will act as an acid. And if a strong acid is present, it will act as a strong base.
Aluminum hydroxide should be handled with caution because its exposure can cause irritation. However, only minor and residual injuries will be present. As for flammability, aluminum hydroxide is not flammable and will not burn. Besides, aluminum hydroxide is not reactive, therefore, it is stable in both fire and water conditions.
Applications of aluminum hydroxide
Aluminum hydroxide has plenty of applications; some people believe that these uses are really endless. Just to illustrate the broadness of the uses, we can say that aluminum hydroxide is used as mordant in dyes, purifier for water, ingredient for cosmetics, and even in as an element for processes in photography. There are also applications of minor character in ceramics and construction. But the most important field where aluminum hydroxide is applied is medicine.
Applications in medicine
Given that aluminum hydroxide is able to neutralize acids, it serves as a natural antacid. Aluminum hydroxide also has a very useful property as it stimulates the immune system of human. Besides, various vaccines, including those that are used to treat hepatitis B, hepatitis A, and tetanus, are prepared using aluminum hydroxide. It can be also used for the treatment of kidney patients who have high level of phosphates in blood due to renal failure. This useful feature exists due to the ability of aluminum hydroxide to bind with phosphates. After binding with aluminum hydroxide, phosphates are flushed out of the human body easily.
There are various applications for aluminum hydroxide in the field of cosmetics. Aluminum hydroxide is most frequently used for the production of lipsticks, make-ups, and other products for skin care. It is used there because it is totally stable and non toxic for people. Sometimes aluminum hydroxide manufacturers of cosmetics also use aluminum hydroxide to produce cleansers for skin, suntan products, body lotions, and moisturizers. Personal care products, for example, shampoos, toothpastes, deodorants and many others, also involve using of aluminum hydroxide. Aluminum hydroxide is also sometimes used for protection of human skin.
Application in industry
Concrete could not be produced without aluminum hydroxide. On the stage of production of concrete aluminum hydroxide is added to cement. It is also very useful because cement with aluminum hydroxide addition dries rapidly if it is being exposed to heat. Ceramics and glass of both industrial and home application is manufactured using aluminum hydroxide. The most useful feature of aluminum hydroxide when it is added to glass consists in the fact that it makes glass heat-resistant. It is possible because, as have been already mentioned, aluminum hydroxide is not flammable and has high melting point. Aluminum hydroxide combined with polymers appears to be a very good fire retardant.
Use in textile field
Don’t forget that aluminum hydroxide doesn’t dissolve in water. For this reason, it can be applied in textiles by adding it in order to produce waterproof clothes. Besides, when it is needed to bind colors of vegetable dyes to fabric, aluminum hydroxide will also be very useful. In this case, aluminum hydroxide is used as a mordant. Any mordant is used in cases when fabrics are resistant to dyes. In such situations, a mordant allows penetrating fabric by the dye. Another instance of aluminum hydroxide usage is when it is used to make some dyes fire-resistant.
Other field of applications
Given how actively aluminum hydroxide is used in various fields we could not omit other field of its applications. Apart from what we have already mentioned above, aluminum hydroxide, as well as any other aluminum compound, is used to purify water in order to remove particles and various kinds of impurities. In manufacturing of inks aluminum hydroxide acts as an extender and preservative. Aluminum hydroxide can be also used as chromatography in laboratories in order to separate chemicals into different compounds.
Reactions in humans
Unlike some other aluminum compounds, aluminum hydroxide causes no adverse reaction in humans, at least towards the majority of persons. It is very broadly used in many fields of life and has plenty of applications in home use and industry. Most people may not know what aluminum hydroxide is or where this compound is used, but we already know it and useful features of aluminum hydroxide are obvious to all people interested in this subject.
Medical precautions of aluminum hydroxide
There is no surprise that the most important application of aluminum hydroxide is its medical application. Even though aluminum hydroxide is relatively safe to humans and is applied in various fields of human life, oral administration of aluminum hydroxide should be completed cautiously. It is always recommended to advise your doctor before starting taking aluminum hydroxide or if any problems occur during the taking.
If you have any health problems related to kidneys, including stones, constipation or disease, you should see a doctor or get an advice of a pharmacist before taking any medicine that contains aluminum hydroxide. Besides, the doctor’s advice is also necessary in case you are dehydrated or drink alcohol on a regular basis. Taking aluminum hydroxide for more than two weeks with no advice of your doctor is strongly not recommended. Besides, you should not take any other medications when taking aluminum hydroxide.
If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant during your treatment with aluminum hydroxide, you must have an advice of your doctor. The same should be done if you are a breast-feeding mother. Effect of aluminum hydroxide on a nursing baby can be harmful. For this reason, you should consult the doctor of yours in such a situation.
How to take aluminum hydroxide?
You should take this aluminum compound only in the way this is specified on its label or how your doctor prescribes it. Don’t exceed the dose prescribed by your doctor and don’t take aluminum hydroxide for longer than it was prescribed.
To be sure that your dose is accurate, measure it with medicine spoon or cup instead of regular spoon. Don’t have a special medical device for measuring? Buy it or ask your doctor to provide it. Aluminum hydroxide should be taken with full glass of water. Usually aluminum hydroxide is taken before bedtime or between meals. Don’t take it longer than two months if your doctor hasn’t advised you otherwise. Aluminum hydroxide should be stored away from heat, light, and moisture.
Don’t worry if you have missed a dose. Usually aluminum hydroxide should not be taken regularly, but if it is, take it as soon as you remember about it. But if the time for the next dose has almost come, skip the missed dose. In case of an overdose with aluminum hydroxide, you should contact poison help service or seek emergency medical help. The symptoms of an overdose with aluminum hydroxide are weight loss, mood changes, confusion, constipation, and urinating less than usually or not urinating at all.
Side effects of aluminum hydroxide
There are some side effects of taking aluminum hydroxide. Some of them require you to seek emergency medical help, including allergic reactions like hives, swelling, and difficult breathing. You should also stop taking aluminum hydroxide and immediately contact your doctor if you have severe constipation or pain in stomach, black, tarry or bloody stools, pain during urinating, coughing with blood, tired feeling, weakness in muscles, or loss of appetite. There are also other side effects of taking aluminum hydroxide, so in case of any of them contact your doctor immediately.
Formula for Aluminum Hydroxidee
Properties for Aluminum Hydroxidee
Molar mass: 78.00 g/mol
Melting point: 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K)
Density: 2.42 g/cm3, solid
Chemical Formula of Aluminium Hydroxide
Gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three rarer polymorphs bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite are all examples of aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3. Aluminium hydroxide is amphoteric, which means it may be both basic and acidic. Aluminium oxide hydroxide, AlO(OH), and aluminium oxide or alumina (Al2O3), which is likewise amphoteric, are closely related. The primary components of the aluminium ore bauxite are these chemicals.
Aluminum Hydroxide Chemical Formula
The chemical formula of aluminium hydroxide/molecular formula of aluminium hydroxide is Al(OH)3.
Structure Formula of Aluminium Hydroxide
Al(OH)3 is made up of two layers of hydroxyl groups, with aluminium ions filling two-thirds of the octahedral holes in between. There are four polymorphs that have been identified. Layers of octahedral aluminium hydroxide units with hydrogen bonds between them are present in all of them. The layers are stacked differently in the polymorphs. Al(OH)3 crystals are hexagonal in all their forms.
As we have already discussed the chemical formula for aluminium hydroxide. Lets see the structure formula for aluminium hydroxide.
The Bayer method, which includes dissolving bauxite in sodium hydroxide at temperatures up to 270 °C (518 °F), produces about all of the aluminium hydroxide used commercially. Bauxite tailings are removed, and aluminium hydroxide is precipitated from the sodium aluminate solution that remains. Calcination can turn this aluminium hydroxide into aluminium oxide or alumina.
Due to residual sodium hydroxide, the residue or bauxite tailings, which is primarily iron oxide, is highly caustic. It was formerly stored in lagoons, which resulted in the Ajka alumina factory tragedy in Hungary in 2010, when a dam burst and nine people drowned. A further 122 people were treated for chemical burns. The muck covered 40 square kilometres (15 square miles) of land and made its way to the Danube. Despite the fact that the mud was deemed non-toxic due to low levels of heavy metals, the slurry it was mixed with had a pH of 13.
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