Barium Oxide Formula

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Barium Oxide is a unique chemical compound that attracts water molecules from the surrounding environment at room temperature. This is widely used in coating for hot cathodes in cathode ray tubes, production of optical crown glass and many more. It is also used as a drying agent for gasoline and solvents. This chemical appears from white colour to yellow colour.

Properties Of Barium Oxide

Chemical formulaBaO
Molecular weight153.326 g/mol
Chemical NameCalcined baryta, Baria, Barium monoxide, Barium protoxide
Density5.72 g/cm3
Melting point1,923°C
Boiling Point~ 2,000°C

Barium Oxide Structural Formula

The structural depiction of Barium Oxide is as shown in the figure below. One ion of barium neutralizes one ion of oxygen, hence those two ions combine to form barium oxide, BaO.

Barium on getting oxidized forms the ionic compound is BaO, represented as below


What is Barium Oxide?

Barium oxide, BaO, is a hygroscopic or moisture-absorbing compound that is non-flammable in nature. It is also known as barium monoxide, barium protoxide, and calcined baryta. It has a cubic structure and is widely used in Cathode ray tubes, crown glass, catalysts, and as a solvent dye. Consumption of barium oxide (BaO) can be fatal. The symbol for Barium Oxide is BaO.

Barium Oxide (BaO) is produced by oxidising barium salts such as barium carbonate, in which the barium burns in oxygen to produce barium oxide. As a result, Barium Oxide has the chemical formula BaO. The chemical reaction for producing Barium Oxide is as follows:


Structure of Barium

Barium Oxide has a cubic structure; the image below depicts the barium oxide structure (BaO), in which one ion of barium participates in the reaction and both ions combine to form barium oxide. As a result, barium is oxidised to form barium oxide. Barium oxide has a total monoisotopic mass of 153.9 g/mol. Because the number of hydrogen bond acceptors is one and the number of hydrogen bond donors is zero, the compound has one covalently bonded unit.

Properties of Barium Oxide (BaO)

When a barium salt is oxidised, barium oxide, also known as baria, is formed. It is a non-flammable, white hygroscopic compound. Here, are some of the characteristics of Barium oxide (BaO).

  • Barium Oxide Formula: Because barium oxide is formed by the oxidation of barium salts, its chemical formula is BaO. The following equation yields the formula for barium oxide.


  • Molar Mass: Barium oxide has a total molecular mass of 153.326 g/mol.
  • Appearance: When a barium salt is oxidised to produce barium oxide, it appears as a white solid powdered substance.
  • Density: The density of barium oxide is 5.72 g/cm3.
  • Chemical Name: Barium oxide is also known as barium monoxide, barium protoxide, and calcined baryta.
  • Melting Point: The melting point of barium oxide is 1,923 degrees Celsius, 3,493 degrees Fahrenheit, or 2196 degrees Kelvin.
  • Boiling Point: The boiling point of barium oxide is 2,000 degrees Celsius, 3,630 degrees Fahrenheit, or 2,270 degrees Kelvin.
  • Solubility in Water: At 20°C, barium oxide dissolves in water at a rate of 3.48 g/100 mL and at 100°C, it dissolves at a rate of 90.8 gm/100 mL.
  • Solubility: In ethanol, dilute mineral acids, and alkalies, barium oxide is soluble. Acetone and liquid ammonia are not soluble in it.

Production of Barium Oxide

Heating barium carbonate produces barium oxide or barium monoxide (BaCO3). It can also be made by thermally decomposing the compound Barium Nitrate Ba(NO3). It is frequently formed through the decomposition of other Barium salts. The following are the chemical reactions that result in the compound barium oxide.



The barium carbonate BaCO3 is heated and decomposed to obtain barium oxide, and carbon dioxide is released during the reaction.

Uses of Barium Oxide

At room temperature, Barium Oxide is a unique white compound that has the ability to absorb moisture from its surroundings. As a result, it is used as an absorbent in a variety of chemical reactions. Let us now look at the applications of BaO (Barium oxide).

  • Barium oxide is used to coat hot cathodes, such as those found in cathode ray tubes.
  • Barium oxide is also used to make optical crown glass. Prior to the use of Barium oxide in the production of optical crown glass, lead oxide was used, but it was discovered that lead oxide raised the dispersive power, which caused difficulty, whereas barium oxide raised the refractive index of the optical crown glass without affecting the dispersive power.
  • Barium Oxide is widely used as an ethoxylation catalyst in the reaction of ethylene oxide and alcohols, which typically occurs between 150 and 200 degrees Celsius.
  • It is used as a source of pure oxygen via heat fluctuation because it decomposes easily to BaO2 via the formation of a peroxide ion.
  • It is used in the isomer separation process.
  • It is widely used in the production of fuel and as a reducing agent.
  • It is a fantastic oxidising agent.

Important Questions

1. What is the element barium used for?

Ans: The amount of barium found in food and water is usually not high enough to be a health concern. Those who work in the barium industry are at the greatest risk of additional health effects from barium exposure. The majority of the health risks they face are caused by breathing in air containing barium sulphate or barium carbonate. Certain amounts of barium can be found in many hazardous waste sites. People who live nearby may be exposed to dangerous levels. The exposure will then be caused by breathing dust, eating barium-contaminated soil or plants, or drinking barium-contaminated water. Skin contact is also possible.

What is the History of Barium Oxide?

Ans: Some barium minerals were known to alchemists in the early Middle Ages. Smooth pebble-like stones of the mineral barite were discovered in volcanic rock near Bologna, Italy, and became known as “Bologna stones.” Alchemists were drawn to them because they glowed for years after being exposed to light. V. Casciorolus described the phosphorescent properties of barite heated with organics in 1602.

In 1774, Carl Scheele discovered that baryte contained a new element, but he was unable to isolate barium, only barium oxide. Johan Gottlieb Gahn isolated barium oxide in similar studies two years later. Guyton de Morveau named oxidised barium “barote,” which was later changed to baryta by Antonie Lavoisier. In the

18th century, English mineralogist William Withering discovered a heavy mineral called witherite in the Cumberland lead mines. Sir Humphry Davy of England was the first to isolate barium by electrolysis of molten barium salts in 1808.

Occurrence of barium oxide

In nature, we always find it in a combined state with other elements as it does not exist freely.

Preparation of barium oxide

The easiest method to prepare barium oxide is by heating barium carbonate with coke, tar, carbon black or by thermal decomposition of barium nitrate. Often it forms through the decomposition of other barium salts.

Barium oxide safety hazards

It causes irritation if comes in contact with the skin and eyes. Also, if inhaled it causes pain and redness. Nevertheless, it is highly dangerous if ingested. Then it can cause diarrhea, muscle paralysis, nausea, cardiac arrhythmia and can cause death. If someone consumes it then medical attention should be immediately sought.

Solved example for you

Question: How to prepare barium oxide?

Solution: we can prepare barium oxide by two methods:

  1. In this reaction, barium reacts with oxygen to form barium oxide:

2Ba + O2 → 2BaO

  1. In this reaction, we  prepare barium oxide by heating barium carbonate:

BaCO3 → BaO + CO2

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What is the pH value of Barium?





Answer: (d)

2. Barium is used for

a)Checking blood group

b)X-ray of alimentary canal

c)X-ray of brain

d)None of these

Answer: (b)


Barium Oxide is also known as barium monoxide (Mono means one) and calcined baryta. In this article, we have learned that Barium oxide is a white, one-of-a-kind chemical compound that, at room temperature, can absorb water molecules from its surroundings. The formula for barium oxide is BaO. It is formed when barium salts, such as barium carbonate, are heated. It is also used as a solvent drying agent.

FAQs on Barium Oxide

What are the safety issues for Barium Oxide?

Barium oxide is a hazardous and toxic compound that causes irritation if it comes in contact with the skin or eyes. Inhalation or swallowing of barium oxide fumes can cause nausea, diarrhea, or skin infection. It can also cause muscle paralysis, which can eventually cause death. Suppose a person ingests or comes in contact with barium oxide, he should immediately be given medical attention, or else it may cause various other health issues leading to death. Barium oxide should never be released into the environment as it is harmful to plants and animals.

What are the Chemical properties of Barium Oxide?

 The chemical properties of Barium oxide are as follows.

What is barium titanate used for?

With dielectric constant values as high as 7,000, barium titanate is a dielectric ceramic used in capacitors. Values as high as 15,000 are possible over a narrow temperature range; most common ceramic and polymer materials have values less than 10, while others, such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) have values between 20 and 70.

It’s a piezoelectric material that’s commonly found in microphones and other transducers. At room temperature, the spontaneous polarisation of barium titanate single crystals ranges between 0.15 C/

m2 in earlier studies and 0.26 C/m2 in more recent publications, with a Curie temperature between 120 and 130°C. The differences are due to the growth technique, with earlier crystals being less pure than current crystals grown with the Czochralski process, which have a higher Curie temperature and a larger spontaneous polarisation.

What type of bonding is found in Barium oxide?

One barium cation Ba2+ and one oxide anion O2− combine to form the molecule. One ionic bond connects both ions. Ionic bond, also known as electrovalent bond, is a type of linkage formed in a chemical compound by the electrostatic attraction of oppositely charged ions. When the valence electrons of one atom are permanently transferred to another, a bond is formed. The atom that loses electrons becomes a positively charged ion (cation) whereas the atom that gains electrons becomes a negatively charged ion (anion).

Why can barium not reduce to a lower oxidation state?

We should return to the oxidation state general rule. Free elements have an oxidation state of 0. Because it does not form chemical bonds with other elements, barium metal is a free element. Because barium cannot form a negative ion, it cannot be reduced to a lower oxidation state. In Barium Oxide, the oxidation number of barium is +2.

What is the origin of barium oxide?

Barium is a naturally occurring component of minerals that are found in small but widely distributed amounts in the earth’s crust, especially in igneous rocks, sandstone, shale, and coal (Kunesh 1978; Miner 1969a). Barium enters the environment naturally through the weathering of rocks and minerals.

What is the chemical formula for barium oxide?

The chemical formula for barium oxide is BaO.

What is the molar mass of barium oxide?

The molar mass of barium oxide is 153.32 g/mol.

What is the appearance of barium oxide?

Barium oxide is a white, odorless, solid.

What are the properties of barium oxide?

Barium oxide is a basic oxide that reacts with water to form barium hydroxide. It is also a strong oxidizing agent.

How is barium oxide produced?

Barium oxide is produced by the reaction of barium metal with oxygen.

What are the uses of barium oxide?

Barium oxide is used in a variety of applications, including:

  • In the production of glass and ceramics
  • As a dehydrating agent
  • As an additive in paints and plastics
  • In the production of barium hydroxide
  • In the removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases

What are the hazards of barium oxide?

Barium oxide is a hazardous substance that can cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. It is also a possible carcinogen.

How should barium oxide be stored and handled?

Barium oxide should be stored in a cool, dry place in a tightly sealed container. It should be handled with care to avoid contact with the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract.

What are the first aid measures for barium oxide exposure?

If you are exposed to barium oxide, the following first aid measures should be taken:

  • If inhaled, remove to fresh air.
  • If in contact with skin, wash with soap and water.
  • If in contact with eyes, flush with water for 15 minutes.
  • If swallowed, do not induce vomiting. Call a poison control center.

Is barium oxide a common element?

Barium oxide is not a common element. It is found in the Earth’s crust in very small amounts.

1. What is the chemical formula for barium oxide?

  • The chemical formula for barium oxide is BaO.

2. What are the properties of barium oxide?

  • Barium oxide is a white solid compound with a high melting point. It is insoluble in water but reacts vigorously with water to form barium hydroxide. It is also highly reactive with acids.

3. How is barium oxide commonly used?

  • Barium oxide finds applications in the manufacturing of glass, ceramics, and various barium compounds. It is also used as a catalyst in organic synthesis and as a drying agent.

4. Is barium oxide hazardous?

  • Yes, barium oxide is considered hazardous. It can cause irritation upon contact with skin and eyes, and inhalation of its dust can lead to respiratory issues. Proper precautions should be taken while handling this compound.

5. Can barium oxide be found naturally?

  • Barium oxide is not commonly found in nature in its pure form. It is typically produced through the reaction of barium carbonate or barium sulfide with high-temperature sources of oxygen, such as air or oxygen gas.

6. Are there any safety considerations when working with barium oxide?

  • Yes, safety precautions should be strictly followed when working with barium oxide. Protective equipment such as gloves, goggles, and a mask should be worn to prevent skin and respiratory exposure. Additionally, proper ventilation should be ensured in areas where barium oxide is handled or processed.

7. What are the environmental impacts of barium oxide?

  • Barium oxide is not considered environmentally friendly. Its disposal should be handled according to regulations, as it can pose risks to the environment if released into water or soil. Proper waste management practices should be followed to minimize environmental impact.
  1. What is Barium Oxide?
    • Barium Oxide (BaO) is a synthetic chemical compound with various applications in optics and ceramics. It has the ability to absorb water molecules from the surrounding environment even at room temperature.
    • Common uses include coating hot cathodes in cathode ray tubes and producing optical crown glass.
    • Additionally, it serves as a drying agent for gases and solvents.
    • Barium oxide can appear in colors ranging from white to yellow.
    • When it reacts with water, it forms barium hydroxide.
    • Unlike some other oxide compounds, it does not conduct electricity.
    • Its density is approximately 5.72 g/cm³, and it is non-flammable.
  2. What is Barium?
    • Barium is an alkaline metal with the chemical symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
    • Due to its high reactivity, barium is not found naturally as a free element.
    • The most common minerals containing barium are barite and witherite.
  3. What is an Oxide?
    • Oxygen, which constitutes about 21% of atmospheric gases, is highly reactive.
    • Oxides are compounds formed by the combination of oxygen with other elements.
    • Examples of oxides include Na₂O, CaO, Al₂O₃, CO₂, N₂O₃, Cl₂O, and XeO₂.
    • An oxide is any chemical compound containing one or more oxygen atoms combined with another element (e.g., Li₂O, CO₂, H₂O).
  4. What is the Chemical Formula of Barium Oxide?
    • The chemical formula for barium oxide is BaO.
    • Its molar mass is 153.33 g/mol.
    • Barium oxide has a cubic structure.
    • It is formed by the oxidation of barium salts and barium carbonate.
    • The reaction can be represented as:2Ba + O₂ → 2BaO
  5. Physical Properties of Barium Oxide:
    • At 20°C, barium oxide is a white, insoluble fine substance.
    • It dissolves at 3.48 g/100 ml at 20°C and 90.8 g/100 ml at 100°C.
    • Soluble in ethanol, dilute mineral acids, and alkalies.
    • Melting point: 1,923°C (3,493°F) or 2196 K.
    • Boiling point: 2,000°C (3,630°F) or 2,270 K.
    • Density: 5.72 g/cm³.
  6. Chemical Properties of Barium Oxide:
    • Barium oxide (also known as baria) is a non-combustible, white, hygroscopic substance.
    • The molecular formula for barium oxide is BaO.
    • It is produced by oxidizing barium salts.
    • The balanced equation for the formation of barium oxide is:2Ba + O₂ → 2BaO

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