Aluminium Carbonate Formula

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Properties Of Ammonium Carbonate (Baker’s Ammonia)

The chemical formula of Ammonium Carbonate(NH4)2CO3
Molecular weight96.09 g/mol
Density1.50 g/cm3
Melting point58 °C
Boiling pointDecomposes

We commonly refer to Ammonium Carbonate as Baker’s Ammonia. Along with it, it is a chemical compound that comprises the ions of the ammonium and carbonate. The chemical or the molecular formula for the Ammonium Carbonate is termed as (NH4)2CO3. On the other hand, it is a crystalline solid that has no color or a white powder that has a strong odor of ammonia and has a very Sharp ammoniacal taste. This article also deals in Ammonium Carbonate Formula.

Moreover, the ammonium carbonate is non-combustible and it is also soluble when you dissolve it in the water. Importantly, when it reacts with the acids it develops ammonium salt and carbon dioxide at the same time. When it reacts with bases it forms ammonia gas. It forms by the process of blending the carbon dioxide and aqueous ammonia together. Moreover, one commonly uses it as a leavening agent and as a smelling salt. It is so because of its property of degrading to the gaseous ammonia and the carbon dioxide when it is heated.

Ammonium Carbonate Formula

The Ammonium Carbonate is a white, crystalline salt that has a chemical formula i.e. (NH4)2CO3.


Ammonium carbonate is made by the combination of carbon dioxide and the aqueous ammonia. However, about 80000 tons per year were produced as of 1997. The ammonium carbonate can be produced by carbon dioxide. This consists of, sending the carbon dioxide and the ammonia gas with the purity level of about 99-99.99 percent into 2 buffer gas vats with a pressure of 0.2 to 2MPa.

Opening the valve of the vats to release the flow of the gas by the Rota meter into a sealed PVC synthesis reaction bag and form the product. Wherein, the speed of the flow is (0.6-2) X 106L/h, and (0.1-0.6) X 106L/h for carbon dioxide and the ammonia gas separately.


The Ammonium carbonate decomposes at a very slow speed with standard temperature and pressure through 2 pathways. Thus any initially pure sample of the ammonium carbonate will soon turn into a mixture that includes various by-products. Ammonium carbonate has the capability to spontaneously decompose into the ammonium bicarbonate and the ammonia.

(NH4)2CO3 → NH4HCO3 + NH3

Which later on decompose into the carbon dioxide, water and some other molecules of ammonia.

NH4HCO3 → H2O + CO2 + NH3


Leavening Agent

The Ammonium carbonate also works as a leavening agent in some traditional recipes, particularly those from northern Europe and Scandinavia for example, Speculoos, Tunnbröd or Lebkuchen. It was the ancestor to today’s more commonly used general baking powder.

Ammonium carbonate may be used as a leavening agent in traditional recipes, particularly those from northern Europe and Scandinavia (e.g. Speculoos, Tunnbröd or Lebkuchen). It was the precursor to today’s more commonly used baking powder.

Originally made from ground deer horn and called hartshorn, today it is called baker’s ammonia. It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and occurs as a white powder or a hard, white or translucent mass. It acts as a heat activated leavening agent and breaks down into carbon dioxide (leavening), ammonia (which needs to dissipate) and water. It is sometimes combined with sodium bicarbonate to mimic as a double acting baking powder and to help mask any ammonia smell not baked out.

It also serves as an acidity regulator and has the E number E503. It can be replaced with baking powder, but this may affect both the taste and texture of the finished product. Baker’s ammonia should be used to create thin dry baked goods like crackers and cookies. This allows the strong ammonia smell to bake out. It should not be used to make moist baked items like cake since ammonia is hydrophilic and will leave a strong bitter taste.

Its use as a leavening agent, with associated controversy, goes back centuries:

In the third kind of bread, a vesicular appearance is given to it by the addition to the dough of some ammoniacal salt, (usually the sub-carbonate,) which becomes wholly converted into a gaseous substance during the process of baking, causing the dough to swell out into little air vessels, which finally bursting, allow the gas to escape, and leave the bread exceedingly porous. Mr. Accum, in his Treatise on Culinary Poisons, has stigmatized this process as “fraudulent,” but, in our opinion, most unjustly. The bakers would never adopt it but from necessity: when good yeast cannot be procured, it forms an admirable and perfectly harmless substitute; costing the baker more, it diminishes his profit, while the consumer is benefited by the bread retaining the solid matter, which by the process of fermentation is dissipated in the form of alcohol and carbonic acid gas.

Some Other Uses

Ammonium carbonate is the main component of the smelling salts. Although, the commercial scale of their production process is smaller. Buckley’s cough syrup that is from Canada today uses ammonium carbonate as an active ingredient that helps in providing relief to the symptoms of bronchitis.

Moreover, it is also useful as an emetic. It is also present in smokeless tobacco generally chewing tobacco products like Skoal. One also uses it in the aqueous solution as a photographic lens cleaning agent that cleans the lenses, for example, Eastman Kodak’s “Kodak Lens Cleaner.”

Properties of Ammonium Carbonate

The chemical formula of Ammonium Carbonate is (NH4)2CO3. Along with this, the molecular weight is 96.09 g/mol. The density is 1.50 g/cm3. It has a melting point of 58 °C whereas, its boiling point decomposes.

Ammonium Hydrogen Carbonate Formula 

Ammonium bicarbonate is an inorganic compound with the chemical and molecular formula HCO3, simplified to NH5CO3. Since the compound has a long history it has many names given to it. In terms of chemistry, it is the chemical salt of bicarbonate ions. It is colourless in nature and remains in a solid form that breaks easily into carbon dioxide, water, and ammonia. It is very harmful to the environment and some major actions should be taken to prevent it from spreading.

Molecular Formula of Ammonium Carbonate

The chemical formula or molecular formula of Ammonium Carbonate is (NH4)2CO3. It degrades to gaseous ammonia and carbon dioxide when heated at a higher temperature. Its application is mainly as a leavening salt and smelling salt. It is also known as Baker’s salt. It acts as a predecessor of modern leavening agents like baking soda and baking powder.

Ammonium Carbonate Molecular Weight

The chemical formula or molecular formula of Ammonium Carbonate is (NH4)2CO3. Its molar mass is 96.06 gm/ mole. 





Molar mass = 28+8+12+48=96(hence proved).

Stability/Shelf Life

The ammonium carbonate decomposes on exposure to air with the loss of ammonia and the carbon dioxide, and it becomes white and powdery and starts converting into ammonium bicarbonate gradually.


One can substitute a teaspoon of the baker’s ammonia with a teaspoon baking powder with a teaspoon of the baking soda.

Solved Example on Ammonium Carbonate Formula

Question: Which will not be precipitated after addition of Ammonium carbonate in presence of NH4CI:- (1) Mg (2) Ba (3) Ca (4) Sr?

Solution: When we add (NH4)2CO3 to salt solution containing NH4Cl and NH4OH, the carbonates of Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+ are precipitated:

BaCl2+(NH4)2CO3 → BaCO3↓+ 2NH4Cl

SrCl2+(NH4)2CO3 → SrCO3↓+ 2NH4Cl

CaCl2+(NH4)2CO3 → CaCO3↓+ 2NH4Cl

Then answer is (1) – Mg.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the Ammonium Carbonate Ionic Formula?

Ans: In the first position of the ionic compound the cation is added. In the same way, the at the front position of the compound’s chemical formula cation is added.

So here we have NH4 as the cation in this case. The cation is written at the beginning and then the anion is written at the end. Here the carbonate ion CO32 acts as the anion. 

2*[NH4+ ] and 1* [CO32]

Which indicates that the chemical formula for the compound will be (NH4)2CO3.


2.Which Type of Bonding is Present in the Ammonium Hydrogen Bond?

Ans: The bond which is present in between ammonium and carbonate ion is an ionic bond. Inside the polyatomic ion, the covalent bond is present. In ammonium ion the covalent bond(dative covalent) is present. Here both the electrons are provided by nitrogen itself. Hence ammonium carbonate contains all the bonds. These bonds are ionic bond, covalent bond, and coordinate bond. The complete transfer of valence electrons between the atoms is called an ionic bond. The sharing of electron pairs between the atom is called a covalent bond. Such electron pairs are also known as shared pairs or bonding pairs. When both the electrons come from the same atom it is known as a coordinate bond. Hence all three bonds are present in (NH4)2CO3.

3. Why is Aqueous Solution For Ammonium Carbonate Basic?

Ans: A salt of a weak acid and the weak solution of the acid which is acidic or basic depends on the ka and kb value of the base and the acid-forming it. A hydrogen-containing substance that is capable of donating a proton to another substance is called an acid. When it can accept a hydrogen ion from an acid then it is called the base. Acids are identified by their sour taste. Acids also can turn blue litmus red. Bases can turn red litmus blue. Bases have a bitter taste and the texture is slippery. Hence ammonium carbonate is aqueous.

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