huật ngữ toán sat

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Tổng hợp thuật ngữ Toán Đại Số trong Math Test SAT

algebrađại số 
arithmeticsố học 
calculusphép tính 
addadditionphép cộng+
to subtract hoặc to take awaysubtractionphép trừ
to multiplymultiplicationtimes or multiplied byphép nhân      x  hoặc  .
to dividedivisionphép chia 
integersố nguyênVí dụ: 3; 12; 435; 35; 14356…
even number  # odd numbersố chẵn, số lẻ 
distributive propertytính phân phối của phép nhâna(b+c) = ab + ac
solutionlời giải 
solve and justify giải và biện luận 
fractionphân số
denominator  mẫu số 
numerator tử số 
radical căn sốVí dụ:  = 2
decimalsố thập phânVí dụ: 0,8
negativesố âm 
positivesố dương 
exponentiallũy thừaVí dụ: 2^3 = 8 
equationphương trình, đẳng thức  
equation with parameterphương trình chứa tham số 
linear equationphương trình bậc nhấtphương trình tuyến tínhy = ax + bb là một hằng số (hay hệ số bậc 0).a là hệ số bậc một.note: phương trình tuyến tính có đồ thị luôn là một đường thẳng. 
interceptcắt, giao tuyến 
equivalent equationphương trình tương đương 
linear inequationbất phương trình bậc nhấtax + b > 0 
quadratic inequation bất phương trình bậc haiax2 + bx + c > 0
rootnghiệm của phương trình 
set of solutiontập nghiệm 

21 từ vựng giúp bạn vượt qua phần thi Toán SSAT

Từ vựng Toán SSAT về số học

1, Integer: số nguyên. Ví dụ: -2, -1, 0, 1, 2…

2, Real Numbers: số thực — có thể là số dương, số âm, số nguyên hay số thập phân.

3, Prime Numbers: số nguyên tố – số chỉ chia hết cho 1 và chính nó.

Lưu ý, 1 không phải là số nguyên tố. Một vài ví dụ về số nguyên tố là 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 và 23.

4, Odd Numbers: số lẻ. Ví dụ: -5, -3, -1, 1, 3, 5…

5, Even Numbers: số chẵn. Ví dụ: -4, -2, 0, 2, 4…

Lưu ý, 0 là số chẵn.

6, Consecutive Numbers: các số liên tiếp trong một dãy số theo một quy tắc nhất định. Ví dụ: 1, 2, 3 là các số tự nhiên liên tiếp. 2, 4, 6 là các số nguyên chẵn liên tiếp. 3, 6, 9 là các bội số của 3 liên tiếp.

7, Factor: nhân tử. Nếu a là nhân tử của b thì b sẽ chia hết cho a.

8, Multiple: bội số. Nếu a là bội số của b thì a sẽ chia hết cho b.

9, Remainder: số dư.

10, Numerator: tử số của một phân số.

11, Denominator: mẫu số của một phân số.

12, Fraction: phân số.

Từ vựng Toán SSAT về thống kê mô tả

13, Mean: giá trị trung bình của một dãy số.

14, Median: số nằm ở giữa của một dãy số đã được sắp xếp từ nhỏ đến lớn.

15, Mode: số xuất hiện nhiều lần nhất trong một dãy số.

Từ vựng Toán SSAT về hình học

16, Isosceles Triangles: tam giác cân.

17, Equilateral Triangles: tam giác đều.

18, Parallel Lines: hai đường thẳng song song (có cùng hệ số góc).

19, Perpendicular Lines: hai đường thẳng vuông góc.

20, Supplementary Angles: hai góc bù nhau (tổng hai góc bằng 180o).

21, Complementary Angles: hai góc phụ nhau (tổng hai góc bằng 90o).

200 từ vựng khó nhất trong bài thi SAT

  1. abjure (v): to reject, renounce
  2. abrogate (v.): to abolish, usually by authority
  3. acerbic (adj.): biting, bitter in tone or taste
  4. acrimony (n.): bitterness, discord
  5. acumen (n.): keen insight
  6. adumbrate (v.): to sketch out in a vague way
  7. alacrity (n.): eagerness, speed
  8. anathema (n.): a cursed, detested person
  9. antipathy(n.): a strong dislike, repugnance
  10. approbation (n.): praise
  11. arrogate (v.): to take without justification
  12. ascetic (adj.): practicing restraint as a means of self-discipline, usually religious
  13. aspersion (n.): a curse, expression of ill-will
  14. assiduous (adj.): hard-working, diligent
  15. blandish (v.): to coax by using flattery
  16. boon (n.): a gift or blessing
  17. brusque (adj.): short, abrupt, dismissive
  18. buffet
    • (v.): to strike with force
    • (n.) an arrangement of food set out on a table
  19. burnish (v.): to polish, shine
  20. buttress
    • (v.) to support, hold up
    • (n.) something that offers support
  21. cacophony (n.): tremendous noise, disharmonious sound
  22. cajole (v.): to urge, coax
  23. calumny (n.): an attempt to spoil someone else’s reputation by spreading lies
  24. capricious (adj.): subject to whim, fickle
  25. clemency (n.): mercy
  26. cogent (adj.): intellectually convincing
  27. concomitant (adj.): accompanying in a subordinate fashion
  28. conflagration (n.): great fire
  29. contrite (adj.): penitent, eager to be forgiven
  30. conundrum (n.): puzzle, problem
  31. credulity (n.): readiness to believe
  32. cupidity (n.): greed, strong desire
  33. cursory (adj.): brief to the point of being superficial
  34. decry (v.): to criticize openly
  35. defile (v.): to make unclean, impure
  36. deleterious (adj.): harmful
  37. demure (adj.): quiet, modest, reserved
  38. deprecate (v.): to belittle, depreciate
  39. deride (v.): to laugh at mockingly, scorn
  40. desecrate (v.): to violate the sacredness of a thing or place
  41. desiccated (adj.): dried up, dehydrated
  42. diaphanous (adj.): light, airy, transparent
  43. diffident (adj.): shy, quiet, modest
  44. discursive (adj.): rambling, lacking order
  45. dissemble (v.): to conceal, fake
  46. dither (v.): to be indecisive
  47. ebullient (adj.): extremely lively, enthusiastic
  48. effrontery (n.): impudence, nerve, insolence
  49. effulgent (adj.): radiant, splendorous
  50. egregious (adj.): extremely bad
  51. enervate (v.): to weaken, exhaus
  52. ephemeral (adj.): short-lived, fleeting
  53. eschew (v.): to shun, avoid
  54. evanescent (adj.): fleeting, momentary
  55. evince (v.): to show, reveal
  56. exculpate (v.): to free from guilt or blame, exonerate
  57. execrable (adj.): loathsome, detestable
  58. exigent (adj.): urgent, critical
  59. expiate (v.): to make amends for, atone
  60. expunge (v.): to obliterate, eradicate
  61. extant (adj.): existing, not destroyed or lost
  62. extol (v.): to praise, revere
  63. fallacious (adj.): incorrect, misleading
  64. fastidious (adj.): meticulous, demanding, having high and often unattainable standards
  65. fatuous (adj.): silly, foolish
  66. fecund (adj.): fruitful, fertile
  67. feral (adj.): wild, savage
  68. fetid (adj.): having a foul odor
  69. florid (adj.): flowery, ornate
  70. fractious (adj.): troublesome or irritable
  71. garrulous (adj.): talkative, wordy
  72. grandiloquence (n.): lofty, pompous language
  73. gregarious (adj.): drawn to the company of others, sociable
  74. hackneyed (adj.): unoriginal, trite
  75. hapless (adj.): unlucky
  76. harangue
    • (n.) a ranting speech
    • (v.) to give such a speech
  77. hegemony (n.): domination over others
  78. iconoclast (n.): one who attacks common beliefs or institutions
  79. ignominious (adj.): humiliating, disgracing
  80. impassive (adj.): stoic, not susceptible to suffering
  81. imperious (adj.): commanding, domineering
  82. impertinent (adj.): rude, insolent
  83. impervious (adj.): impenetrable, incapable of being affected
  84. impetuous (adj.): rash; hastily done
  85. impinge
    • (v.) to impact, affect, make an impression
    • (v.) to encroach, infringe
  86. implacable (adj.): incapable of being appeased or mitigated
  87. impudent (adj.): casually rude, insolent, impertinent
  88. inchoate (adj.): unformed or formless, in a beginning stage
  89. incontrovertible (adj.): indisputable
  90. indefatigable (adj.): incapable of defeat, failure, decay
  91. ineffable (adj.): unspeakable, incapable of being expressed through words
  92. inexorable (adj.): incapable of being persuaded or placated
  93. ingenuous (adj.): not devious; innocent and candid
  94. inimical (adj.): hostile
  95. iniquity (n.): wickedness or sin
  96. insidious (adj.): appealing but imperceptibly harmful, seductive
  97. intransigent (adj.): refusing to compromise, often on an extreme opinion
  98. inure (v.): to cause someone or something to become accustomed to a situation
  99. invective (n.): an angry verbal attack
  100. inveterate (adj.): stubbornly established by habit
  101. jubilant (adj.): extremely joyful, happy
  102. juxtaposition (n.): the act of placing two things next to each other for implicit comparison
  103. laconic (adj.): terse in speech or writing
  104. languid (adj.): sluggish from fatigue or weakness
  105. largess (n.): the generous giving of lavish gifts
  106. latent (adj.): hidden, but capable of being exposed
  107. legerdemain (n.): deception, sleight-of-hand
  108. licentious (adj.): displaying a lack of moral or legal restraints
  109. limpid (adj.): clear, transparent
  110. maelstrom (n.): a destructive whirlpool which rapidly sucks in objects
  111. magnanimous (adj.): noble, generous
  112. malediction (n.): a curse
  113. malevolent (adj.): wanting harm to befall others
  114. manifold (adj.): diverse, varied
  115. maudlin (adj.): weakly sentimental
  116. mawkish (adj.): characterized by sick sentimentality
  117. mendacious (adj.): having a lying, false character
  118. mercurial (adj.): characterized by rapid change or temperamentality
  119. modicum (n.): a small amount of something
  120. morass (n.): a wet swampy bog; figuratively, something that traps and confuses
  121. multifarious (adj.): having great diversity or variety
  122. munificence (n.): generosity in giving
  123. myriad (adj.): consisting of a very great number
  124. nadir (n.): the lowest point of something
  125. nascent (adj.): in the process of being born or coming into existence
  126. nefarious (adj.): heinously villainous
  127. neophyte (n.): someone who is young or inexperienced
  128. obdurate (adj.): unyielding to persuasion or moral influences
  129. obfuscate (v.): to render incomprehensible
  130. oblique (adj.): diverging from a straight line or course, not straightforward
  131. obsequious (adj.): excessively compliant or submissive
  132. obstreperous (adj.): noisy, unruly
  133. obtuse (adj.): lacking quickness of sensibility or intellect
  134. odious (adj.): instilling hatred or intense displeasure
  135. officious (adj.): offering one’s services when they are neither wanted nor needed
  136. opulent (adj.): characterized by rich abundance verging on ostentation
  137. ostensible (adj.): appearing as such, seemingly
  138. palliate (v.): to reduce the severity of
  139. pallid (adj.): lacking color
  140. panacea (n.): a remedy for all ills or difficulties
  141. paragon (n.): a model of excellence or perfection
  142. pariah (n.): an outcast
  143. parsimony (n.): frugality, stinginess
  144. pathos (n.): an emotion of sympathy
  145. paucity (adj.): small in quantity
  146. pejorative (adj.): derogatory, uncomplimentary
  147. pellucid (adj.): easily intelligible, clear
  148. penurious (adj.): miserly, stingy
  149. perfidious (adj.): disloyal, unfaithful
  150. perfunctory (adj.): showing little interest or enthusiasm
  151. pernicious (adj.): extremely destructive or harmful
  152. perspicacity (adj.): shrewdness, perceptiveness
  153. pertinacious (adj.): stubbornly persistent
  154. petulance (n.): rudeness, irritability
  155. pithy (adj.): concisely meaningful
  156. platitude (n.): an uninspired remark, cliché
  157. plethora (n.): abundance, excess
  158. polemic (n.): an aggressive argument against a specific opinion
  159. portent (n.): an omen
  160. precocious (adj.): advanced, developing ahead of time
  161. prescient (adj.): to have foreknowledge of events
  162. primeval (adj.): original, ancient
  163. probity (n.): virtue, integrity
  164. proclivity (n.): a strong inclination toward something
  165. promulgate (v.): to proclaim, make known
  166. propensity (n.): an inclination, preference
  167. propitious (adj.): favorable
  168. prosaic (adj.): plain, lacking liveliness
  169. proscribe (v.): to condemn, outlaw
  170. protean (adj.): able to change shape; displaying great variety
  171. prurient (adj.): eliciting or possessing an extraordinary interest in sex
  172. puerile (adj.): juvenile, immature
  173. pugnacious (adj.): quarrelsome, combative
  174. pulchritude (n.): physical beauty
  175. punctilious (adj.): eager to follow rules or conventions
  176. quagmire (n.): a difficult situation
  177. querulous (adj.): whiny, complaining
  178. quixotic (adj.): idealistic, impractical
  179. rancor (n.): deep, bitter resentment
  180. rebuke (v.): to scold, criticize
  181. rectitude (n.): uprightness, extreme morality
  182. replete (adj.): full, abundant
  183. reprobate (adj.): evil, unprincipled
  184. reprove (v.): to scold, rebuke
  185. repudiate (v.): to reject, refuse to accept
  186. rescind (v.): to take back, repeal
  187. restive (adj.): resistant, stubborn, impatient
  188. ribald (adj.): coarsely, crudely humorous
  189. rife (adj.): abundant
  190. ruse (n.): a trick
  191. sacrosanct (adj.): holy, something that should not be criticized
  192. sagacity (n.): shrewdness, soundness of perspective
  193. salient (adj.): significant, conspicuous
  194. sanctimonious (adj.): giving a hypocritical appearance of piety
  195. sanguine (adj.): optimistic, cheery
  196. scurrilous (adj.): vulgar, coarse
  197. serendipity (n.): luck, finding good things without looking for them
  198. servile (adj.): subservient
  199. solicitous (adj.): concerned, attentive
  200. transient (adj.): passing through briefly; passing into and out of existence

262 từ vựng SAT bạn sẽ gặp trong ngày kiểm tra

WordDefinitionExample Sentence
Abatev. to become less active, less intense, or less in amountAs I began my speech, my feelings of nervousness quickly abated.
Abstractadj. existing purely in the mind; not representing actual realityJulie had trouble understanding the appeal of the abstract painting.
Abysmaladj. extremely badI got an abysmal grade on my research paper!
Accordinglyadv. in accordance withAll students must behave accordingly.
Acquisitionn. the act of gaining a skill or possession of somethingLanguage acquisition is easier for kids than it is for adults.
Adaptv. to make suit a new purposev. to accommodate oneself to a new condition, setting, or situationThe US has adapted many foreign foods to better suit the tastes of Americans.Dogs are known for their ability to quickly adapt to their environments.
Adeptadj. having knowledge or skill (usu. in a particular area)Beth loves playing the piano, but she’s especially adept at the violin.
Adequateadj. having sufficient qualifications to meet a specific task or purposeThough his resume was adequate, the company doubted whether he’d be a good fit.
Adventn. the arrival or creation of something (usu. historic)The world has never been the same since the advent of the light bulb.
Adversarialadj. relating to hostile oppositionAn adversarial attitude will make you many enemies in life.
Advocaten. someone who promotes or defends somethingv. to defend or promote something (usu. a belief, theory, opinion, etc.)I am an advocate for free higher education.Environmental protesters often advocatefor cleaner energy practices.
Aestheticadj. relating to beauty or refined tasteThe aesthetic decorations at the wedding reception made you feel as if you were a character in a fairy tale.
Affordv. to be able to buyv. to be able to spareHe’s saving money so he can afford to buy a new car.I can’t afford to lose any more pencils!
Agitatev. to promote something (usu. a cause)They’re agitating for better health care.
Allowv. to permit or consent toUS law allows citizens to speak freely.
Alludev. to make a secretive mention of somethingShe alluded to the problem at hand but didn’t say anything more about it.
Altercationn. a noisy argument or confrontationGreg got into an altercation with a stranger at the bar.
Ambiguousadj. unclear or vague in meaningHer ambiguous statement made me question whether she could be trusted.
Ambitiousadj. having a powerful desire for success or achievementPenny is so ambitious, she wants to be president someday.
Ambivalencen. the state of being uncertain or stuck between two or more optionsHis ambivalence prevented him from immediately signing the contract.
Analogousadj. similar but not identicalGreen onions are considered analogous to spring onions.
Annihilatev. to destroy or cause devastating destructionThe dictator sent orders to annihilate the group of rebels.
Anomalyn. something different from the normThis result is an anomaly and very rarely happens.
Anticipatev. assume to be likely to happenThe party was just as fun as I had anticipated it would be.
Antipathyn. a strong feeling of dislikeHer antipathy toward the professor was obvious: she rolled her eyes whenever he entered the classroom.
Apexn. the highest point of somethingThe spring play was the apex of our school year.
Apprehensionn. fearful expectation of somethingHer apprehension to leave her house resulted in her missing the train.
Articulatev. to clearly express in wordsShe articulated her opinion on the price of the house.
Artificialadj. something made; not occurring naturallyMany candies use artificial flavors to make them taste fruity.
Assertionn. a strong declarationHis assertion that sharks are mammals made everyone laugh.
Austereadj. extremely plainadj. stern and forbiddingadj. relating to self-denialHe lived in a small, austere cabin in the middle of the woods.My boss had an austere expression on her face.An austere lifestyle, like that of monks, isn’t for everybody.
Authenticityn. the quality of being real and true instead of fake and contrivedThe police officer doubted the authenticity of the suspect’s story.
Avenuen. an intangible path or approach to somethingThe company has decided to pursue other avenues.
Avidadj. actively interested in or enthusiastic about somethingGerald is an avid soccer fan.
Basicadj. relating to the foundation or basis of somethingYou have to start with basic Russian before you can move on to the advanced level.
Bearv. to have as a characteristicv. to have (a child)v. to bring forthv. to put up withShe bears a strong resemblance to your mother.Judy will bear her first child last year.My garden is going to bear pumpkins this year.I can’t bear her complaining any longer!
Benevolentadj. kind, generousMany cultures believe in benevolent spirits.
Biasn. a preconception that prevents objectivityIt’s important to avoid bias when investigating a crime.
Bittersweetadj. tinged with a feeling of sadnessThe ending of the romance movie was bittersweet.
Bolsterv. to support, strengthen, or fortifyIf we work together, we should be able to lift and then bolster the couch.
Boostn. an increase or growthv. to increase or make growThe boost in profits was a welcome change.In order to boost profits, you need to cater to your customers.
Brawln. an intense, loud fightv. to fight loudly and disruptivelyA brawl broke out at school today after one student accused another of cheating.The two students brawled for an hour.
Brevityn. the quality of being brief or terseThe brevity of their time together made it all the more romantic.
Candidadj. direct, bluntJosh is candid about his desire to become an actor.
Candorn. the trait of being honest and frankI admire her candor, especially when nobody else bothers to speak up.
Capitalizev. to use to your advantageI’d like to capitalize on your math skills by having your work the cash register.
Capturev. to trap or take possession ofv. to successfully represent or imitatev. to captivate, mesmerizev. to catch or seizeThe spy was captured by the enemy.Your painting beautifully captures the ephemerality of life.I was captured by her beauty.The cops captured the criminal three days after the incident.
Civicadj. relating to the city or citizensVoting is a civic duty.
Clinicaladj. emotionally unattached (usu. used in medical or scientific setting)Her clinical approach to situations allows her to handle them more effectively.
Cloutn. special advantage or powerChildren of rich and famous people often believe they have a lot of clout.
Coarseadj. indicating a rough textureadj. lacking refinement or sophisticationThe horse’s mane was coarse, as if it had never been washed.The queen’s coarse way of speaking surprised the other members of royalty.
Coincidev. to happen at the same timeIt wasn’t until after I booked my ticket that I realized the concert coincided with my finals.
Commissionn. the use of payment to request something (e.g., a service or product)This painting was commissioned by a rich merchant in 1589.
Comparableadj. able to be comparedThis novel is comparable to Huckleberry Finn.
Competentadj. sufficiently qualifiedWe need to hire a competent web developer to create a good website for our company.
Complacentadj. satisfied, with no desire to change or improveThough he had never won any awards or even been published, he was complacent with his life as a poet.
Complementv. to make perfect or completeThis wine perfectly complements this platter of gourmet cheese.
Concedev. to be forced to agree or surrenderv. to admit to a transgressionWith no chance of winning the battle, the army at last conceded.Dan conceded to pranking his sister.
Conceivev. to imagine or come up withThe plan to build the city was originally conceived in the early 1900s.
Condonev. to overlook, approve, or allowShe couldn’t condone her daughter’s rebellious behavior.
Conduciveadj. able to bring about or be suitable forThe noisy students hardly made the campus library conducive to studying.
Conductv. to control or managev. to behave a certain wayThe group conducted their research abroad last year.Be sure to conduct yourself accordingly.
Confidev. to share something secretive with someoneShe confided all of her biggest secrets in her best friend.
Confinev. to put limits on; to restrictWe are going to confine the use of this drinking fountain.
Consensusn. overall agreementAfter weeks of debating, the panel finally came to a consensus.
Constitutev. to form or compose (part of) somethingThe desire for equality constituted the civil rights movement.
Contemplatev. to think deeply aboutShe contemplated telling her teacher about the cheating student.
Contendv. to maintain or assert (an opinion)The president contends that the US government will not negotiate with terrorists.
Contradictv. to be in contrast withThe camera footage contradicts his alibi.
Controversialadj. highly debatable and causing contentionMillions of viewers watched the controversial debate take place.
Conventionaladj. abiding by accepted standardsShe lives a conventional life in the suburbs.
Conveyv. to pass on or transfer (information)I have trouble conveying my thoughts in French.
Convictionn. a firm belief in somethingHer religious convictions prevent her from eating meat.
Corroboratev. to provide evidence for; to back up (a claim)The note signed by her father corroborates her claim that she was absent from class that day.
Counteractv. to work in opposition toThis ingredient seems to counteract the other ones.
Counterargumentn. an argument used to criticize or dismantle another argumentMake sure to include a counterargument in your essay so that you can show you’ve considered the topic from all perspectives.
Counterproductiveadj. hindering the achievement of a goalBill’s idea to take a shortcut was ultimately counterproductive: it took us twice as long to get to the train station.
Culminationn. the final act or climaxThe culmination of the performance was unforgettable.
Cultivatev. to foster the growth ofTeachers don’t just pass on new information to students—they cultivate their academic potential.
Decreev. to declare formally and with authorityThe president decreed that Halloween would henceforth be a national holiday.
Deferencen. respect; regardHer deference to the elderly makes her the perfect candidate for an internship at the retirement center.
Deficientadj. not enough in degree or amountI feel as though the sources for my paper are deficient.
Demonstratev. to do as an examplev. gives evidence forCould you demonstrate the dance move for me?This book’s use of words such as “grim” and “bleak” demonstrates the author’s mournful tone.
Demurv. to object toShe demurred at my request to transfer to a different department.
Depletev. to (over)use over time (usu. resources)The lost campers quickly depleted their supply of food.
Desolateadj. bare, barren, emptyThe moon is one giant, desolate landscape.
Devisev. to come up with (a plan)Lana devised a plan to make herself famous.
Dilemman. a problem, usually requiring a choice between two optionsThe main dilemma is whether to pay for a commercial or not.
Diligencen. conscientiousness; the quality of being committed to a taskDiligence and confidence will get you far in life.
Diminishv. to become smaller in scope or degreeThe itchiness of mosquito bites usually starts to diminish after a few days.
Direadj. hopeless and dangerous or fearfulWhen the police didn’t explain what was happening right away, Jane knew that the situation must be dire.
Discordn. disagreementDisputes over money caused intense discord in the family.
Disdainn. a lack of respect and strong dislike (toward something or someone)He looked at me with such disdain that I immediately knew the job wouldn’t work out.
Dismayn. hopelessness, stress, or consternationv. to fill with woe or apprehensionTo Nick’s dismay, he got an F on the test.Many were dismayed by the town’s implementation of metered parking.
Disparagev. to belittle or speak down toA good boss is stern but never disparageshis or her employees.
Dispatchv. to send off a message or messengerThe mother dispatched her daughter to their neighbor’s house.
Diversificationn. the act of becoming diverseLately, there’s been noticeable diversification of students at higher institutions.
Doctrinen. a principle, theory, or position, usu. advocated by a religion or gov’tDevoutly religious people often live their lives according to their doctrines.
Dominionn. power and authority (usu. over a territory)n. a legal territoryThe country claimed to have dominion over parts of Russia.Puerto Rico is a dominion of the US.
Drearyadj. sad, gloomy, dullThe gray clouds in the sky made the day feel dreary.
Dubiousadj. doubtful, questionableThe man’s claims to the throne were dubious since nobody knew where he’d come from.
Eccentricadj. peculiar or odd; deviating from the normShe’s a little eccentric but still fun to be around.
Egregiousadj. extremely badAfter cheating on the exam, Emily began to feel as though she’d made an egregious mistake.
Eloquentadj. having refined or expressive communication skills (in speaking or writing)His speech was not only eloquent but also extremely compelling.
Eminentadj. superior or distinguished; high in position or statusOur town made news when the eminent magician came to perform at our local theater.
Emitv. to discharge, give forth, or releasePlants consume carbon dioxide and emit oxygen.
Emphaticadj. very expressive; using emphasisHer emphatic smile told me she was excited to ride the roller coaster.
Empiricaladj. derived from experience, observation, or an experimentYou need empirical evidence to support your claim.
Endowv. to equip or bestow (usu. a quality or ability)According to the myth, the gods endowed him with the gift of healing.
Endurev. to withstand, sustain, or hold out againstI can’t endure this wait any longer. Will Stanford accept or reject me?
Entailv. to involve or includeA doctoral program entails long nights and a heavy workload.
Entrenchedadj. firmly establishedHer face will forever be entrenched in my memory.
Enumeratev. to specify or countI can’t enumerate how many times I’ve had to remind my students when their papers are due.
Envyn. excessive jealousyv. to admire and be jealous ofHis envy of her is quite obvious.She envies her coworker’s social skills.
Erraticadj. having no fixed course; deviating from the normThe car became erratic after slipping on ice.
Establishv. to enactv. to found (a business, group, school, etc.)They established a law that made it illegal to drive after drinking any amount of alcohol.Our group established a new branch in Chicago.
Evokev. to draw forth or call upHorror movies are great at evoking fear.
Exacerbatev. to make worse or increase the severity ofThe doctor told me not to run as it can exacerbate my knee injury.
Excelv. to do something extremely well or to be superior inShe was a well-rounded student but excelled especially in science.
Exertv. to put into use (usu. as effort)Don’t exert all of your energy at once.
Exhilaratingadj. invigorating, stimulating, or excitingThe music playing at the club was catchy and exhilarating.
Expendv. to use up (as in energy or money)Be careful not to expend all your energy in the first half of a marathon.
Exploitv. to use selfishly or for profitThe shoddy company exploited its workers by paying them extremely low wages.
Facilitatev. to aid the progress ofIn grad school, advisors facilitate students’ research and offer constructive criticism.
Feasibilityn. the practicality or possibility of somethingThe feasibility of her project was doubtful; she’d have to go all the way to Antarctica and back before the school year ended.
Ferocityn. viciousness, violenceThe lion is just one wild animal known for its ferocity.
Fiscaladj. related to (government) moneyFiscal policy is how the government uses money to influence the economy.
Flourishv. to prosper, grow, or make fast progressAfter one year, the tiny plants had flourished into a breathtaking garden.
Fluctuatev. to be unstable; to rise and fallStocks can fluctuate on a daily basis, making it difficult to determine when to buy or sell one.
Fomentv. to stir upThe civilians accused their leader of fomenting political unrest.
Foreseeableadj. capable of being predicted or anticipatedI can’t imagine aliens visiting us in the foreseeable future.
Franklyadv. directly, clearlyI frankly don’t see the point in learning to drive.
Freewheelingadj. carefreeHis freewheeling attitude often got him in trouble at work.
Fundamentaladj. the most essential or most basic partA thesis is arguably the most fundamental part of an essay.
Galvanizingadj. thrilling, exciting, stimulatingThe galvanizing performance left everyone spellbound.
Geriatricadj. relating to old ageI became interested in geriatric medicine shortly after my grandfather passed away from cancer.
Hostileadj. harmful, dangerousThe voices around the corner sounded angry, hostile even.
Hypotheticaladj. supposed; related to a hypothesisFor my physics homework, I must come up with a hypothetical situation.
Ignominiousadj. publicly shameful or humiliatingThe politician’s expensive campaign ultimately ended in ignominious defeat.
Impartv. to transmit, bestow, or discloseParents must impart common sense to their children.
Impartialityn. the equal and objective treatment of opposing viewsTo ensure impartiality, we require everyone to follow these general guidelines.
Imposingadj. impressive (esp. in size or appearance)The old mansion was imposing in its huge size and gothic architecture.
Impositionn. an unnecessary burdenIf it’s not too much of an imposition, could you proofread my paper?
Imprudentadj. not cautious or prudent; rashBackpacking abroad can be fun, but don’t be imprudent about money.
Incitev. to encourage or stir upHer hateful words incited anger in the crowd.
Indifferencen. apathy, emotional detachmentThe girl’s indifference toward her brother upset their parents.
Indiscriminatelyadv. randomly; with little or no distinctionLottery winners are chosen indiscriminately.
Indulgev. to give into; to satisfy or gratifyMy friend loves to indulge in cheesy romance movies.
Inferv. to guess, conclude, or derive by reasoningYou can infer from this quotation that the writer didn’t care for “pretty” language.
Innovativeadj. novel or new (esp. as an idea or invention)Her invention was incredibly innovative and won her multiple awards.
Insatiableadj. can’t be satisfiedA vampire’s thirst for blood is said to be insatiable.
Inversionn. a reversalThe culture’s norms were an inversion of our own.
Invokev. to call on; to appeal to (e.g., a higher power)The shaman attempted to invoke a demon.
Irreconcilableadj. incapable of being in harmony or agreed uponThe couple’s differences were ultimately irreconcilable, giving them no choice but to break up.
Lamentv. to feel sorrow for; to mournSusan lamented her missed chance at going to Europe with her high school class.
Locomotionn. movementPhysics involves the study of locomotion.
Lucrativeadj. capable of making a lot of money; profitableWriting books isn’t a particularly lucrative career, unless you’re J.K. Rowling.
Maliciousadj. harmful, spitefulThe malicious spirit drove out the inhabitants from their home.
Malleableadj. capable of being molded or changedChildren’s minds are malleable but only for so long.
Materialisticadj. superficial; focus on material possessionsMany people accuse Americans of being materialistic.
Melodramaticadj. extravagant or exaggerated (as of a melodrama)The melodramatic play was well liked by the audience.
Modestadj. simple and humbleadj. small in size or amountThey moved into a modest house in the countryside.I received a modest sum of money for my help at the company event.
Modifyv. to change, alter, or tweakDr. Nguyen modified the gene so that it wouldn’t carry the disease.
Momentousadj. historically significantHer win in the election was momentous.
Noveladj. new, innovativeWe are looking for novel ways to approach the project.
Nuancen. a subtle difference in meaningBody-language experts even understand the nuances of facial expressions.
Nulladj. legally void and ineffectiveThe government declared their marriage null.
Objectivityn. judgment based on observations instead of emotions or opinionsIn scientific research, objectivity is of utmost importance.
Obsoleteadj. no longer used; rare or uncommonHistorians assumed record players would be obsolete by now, but in fact they’re making a huge comeback.
Omnipotentadj. almighty and all powerfulGods are omnipotent beings who can control human destiny.
Onsetn. the beginning or early stagesAt the onset of her career as a lawyer, things were looking up.
Opinev. to openly express an opinionThe new employee opined at the company meeting.
Ornateadj. highly detailed and decoratedThat ornate silverware must be worth thousands of dollars!
Oustv. to remove or force out of (usu. a position or office)Sick and tired of putting up with his bad moods, the pirates ousted their captain.
Paramountadj. predominant, superior, most importantOur paramount concern is the safety of our employees.
Peculiaradj. strange, bizarreUpon entering the abandoned house, Kate experienced a peculiar feeling, as if someone was watching her.
Perishv. to die; to pass awayAccording to the news, nobody perished in the fire.
Persecutev. to cause suffering toThey will persecute anyone who doesn’t agree with their views of the world.
Petulantadj. cranky, pouty, irritablePetulant children are especially difficult to care for.
Pinnaclen. highest level or degreeMany believe that composers such as Beethoven and Mozart represent the pinnacle of classical music.
Pitiableadj. deserving pityThe frail-looking dog was pitiable, so I gave it some food and took it inside to care for it.
Plausibleadj. reasonable and possibly trueHer story is plausible, but that doesn’t mean she’s telling the truth.
Postulatev. to assertThe literary critic postulates that romanticism and naturalism are actually interconnected.
Potentadj. having great influenceadj. having a strong, chemical effectThe bald eagle is a potent symbol of the US.The potion was definitely potent—it healed my wounds immediately!
Pragmaticadj. practical, usefulIt’s not necessarily more pragmatic to study engineering than it is to study philosophy.
Precedentn. an example or subject from earlier in timeThis change in law is without historical precedent.
Predecessorn. someone who comes before you (usu. in position or office)My predecessor gave me many tips for running the office.
Prescribev. to command ordersv. to issue authorization for medicationsThe directions for our essay prescribe a length of at least ten pages.A doctor must prescribe you this medication before you can begin taking it.
Principlen. basic truth, assumption, or ruleRemember the universal principle: treat others as you want them to treat you.
Prohibitv. to command against, to outlawAlcohol was prohibited in the US in the 1920s.
Promptadj. punctual, on timen. a cue to begin something; instructionsv. to incite, propel, or cause to actShe is always prompt when it comes to turning in her homework.I had to write an essay based on a prompt.The possibility of a scholarship prompted him to apply to Harvard.
Promulgatev. to put into law or formally declareThe ruler will at last promulgate an amnesty with the neighboring countries.
Prosecutev. to bring criminal action against someone (in a trial)The suspect was prosecuted yesterday.
Provocativeadj. intending to provoke, inspire, or arouseHer nude paintings are considered quite provocative.
Qualitativeadj. involving qualities of something (features and content)I noticed a qualitative change in her paintings.
Quantitativeadj. involving quantities (numbers and amounts)We must conduct a quantitative analysis.
Quirkn. a strange habitHis biggest quirk is his love of old marbles.
Ramifyv. to split into two or more branchesCars ramified throughout the world in the twentieth century.
Rashadj. without attention to danger or riskHer rash decision to pass the car nearly resulted in a crash.
Rawadj. unrefinedadj. not processed; uncooked (as in food)He’s got raw talent as a singer, but he needs to work on his performance skills.In some countries, such as Japan, it is normal to eat raw fish.
Readilyadv. right away and without difficultyWater was readily available at different points in the race.
Reconsiderationn. thinking again about a previously made choiceThe judges’ reconsideration of her performance resulted in her victory.
Reformn. a change for the better; improvementv. to improve via changeThe reform made it so that only those 18 and older can legally drive.The government reformed its vague policies on marijuana use.
Refutev. to prove to be untrue, unfounded, or incorrectThe student refuted the professor’s claim in class.
Reinforcev. to strengthen or add support toWe can use these pipes to reinforce the structure.
Reluctantlyadv. somewhat unwillinglyMax reluctantly agreed to see the horror movie with his friends.
Renouncev. to give up (usu. power or a position)v. to cast offOur CEO renounced her position yesterday.He renounced his friend after he caught her stealing money from him.
Reproachv. to criticizeThe mother reproached her daughter’s school for making students come in during a blizzard.
Repudiatev. to refuse to recognize as truev. to cast offThe father repudiated his son’s marriage.She repudiated her son once she found out he’d married someone without telling her.
Retentionn. the act of keeping somethingWater retention can make you weigh more on certain days.
Satiatedadj. satisfied (usu. in hunger)I felt satiated after eating a snack.
Savvyadj. having practical intelligence or knowledgeMy brother is not very savvy when it comes to using public transportation.
Scandalousadj. morally offensive, often causing damage to one’s reputationThe scandalous politician decided it was best to resign from office.
Scornv. to look down on with disdainIt’s difficult for me not to scorn those who use improper grammar.
Scrupulousadj. paying great attention to detailI am a scrupulous proofreader and never miss an error.
Scrutinizev. to examine carefully and criticallyThe teacher scrutinized her students’ essays.
Secretev. to produce or release (a substance)Trees secrete a sticky substance called sap.
Sentimentn. opinionn. a tender or moving gestureI am of the sentiment that you should never give out your passwords to anyone.Even though I’m not a big fan of porcelain dolls, I appreciated the sentiment.
Sheeradj. so thin that light can shine throughThe curtains on the window were so sheer you could clearly see inside the house.
Simpleadj. easy; not complexadj. undecoratedThis math problem is so simple even a first grader can solve it.The simple beauty of the ocean is what makes it memorable.
Sinisteradj. ominous, evilMedieval peasants believed sinister demons could harm humans.
Solidarityn. the joining of commonalities or common purposes among a groupI stood in solidarity with other female students by refusing to wear the school’s sexist uniform.
Sparinglyadv. insufficiently, meagerly, or in a restricted mannerDue to my condition, I must eat salt sparingly.
Spawnv. to release eggsv. to call forth or generateFrogs typically spawn in ponds.The topic spawned an ongoing debate among his family members.
Spurv. to stimulate or inciteHer bravery spurred others to act.
Squalidadj. run-down, sordid, or sleazyThe squalid cabin needed a new roof and an exterminator.
Starkadj. very plain; devoid of any details or featuresLooking out at the stark landscape, I felt a keen sense of isolation.
Staticadj. motionlessadj. changelessThe ball is static.Her life has been static for the past three years.
Subordinateadj. lower in rankn. someone lower in rankv. to make dependent on or put at a lower rankThe subordinate officers work every day.My subordinate will check you in.You aren’t my boss—you can’t subordinate me to the role of receptionist!
Subsequentlyadv. happening later or after somethingI subsequently went home.
Substantialadj. very large in amount or degreeI was shocked to find a substantial amount of money beneath the park bench.
Substantiatev. to strengthen with new evidence or factsIt is important for scientists to substantiate their theories whenever possible.
Subtleadj. hard to detect or analyzeI detected in her expression a subtle hint of irritation.
Sufficientadj. enough; just meeting a requirementThese boxes should be sufficient for our move.
Surlyadj. unfriendly; inclined to angerThe bartender was a surly fellow who wasn’t afraid to start a fight.
Surmountv. to get on top of or overcomeThey managed to surmount the language barrier by using a translation app.
Susceptibleadj. to be vulnerable (to something)Children are more susceptible to certain illnesses than adults are.
Tactfuladj. skilled at dealing with peopleHer tactful attitude toward our class made her one of my favorite teachers.
Tautadj. pulled tightThe rubberband was taut and ready to be fired.
Teemingadj. abundantly filled (usu. with living organisms)Doorknobs are not as clean as they look and are often teeming with germs.
Temperamentn. usual mood or feelingsShe had a hostile temperament, making her intimidating to most people.
Tentativeadj. not yet finalizedWe haven’t made any official arrangements yet, but the tentative location for our wedding is Hawaii.
Transparentadj. see-through; so thin that light can shine throughadj. truthful or easy to perceiveStained window glass isn’t as transparent as regular window glass is.She was transparent about her plans to end her marriage.
Treacherousadj. dangerous and unstableThe journey was becoming treacherous, but they continued on regardless.
Tremendousadj. very large, good, or bad in degree or sizeTremendous news! You don’t have to repay your loans!
Ubiquitousadj. being everywhere at onceCell phones are ubiquitous these days.
Unadornedadj. undecorated, plainThough the dress was cheap and unadorned, it was by far her favorite one on the rack.
Underminev. to weaken or subvert (usu. gradually or secretly)Parents should take care not to constantly undermine their children.
Underscorev. to emphasize or give additional weight toThis sentence seems to underscore the overall meaning of the passage.
Undulatev. to move as ripples or in a wavy patternBelly dancers are known for their ability to skillfully undulate their stomachs.
Unilateraladj. one-sidedThe unilateral decision was deemed unfair by the other party involved.
Unjustadj. unfair; not justifiedThe court’s decision is unjust—he should not go free.
Unmitigatedadj. downright, utter, totalMy speech was an unmitigated disaster!
Unprecedentedadj. completely new and never having happened before; historicThe number of protestors was unprecedented.
Unveilv. to make visible; to revealWe plan to unveil our plans for the new company project on Sunday.
Urgen. desire or impulsev. to encourage or persuadeHe had the urge to tell his parents about his acceptance to Columbia but decided against it.She urged her sister to apply to Stanford.
Validatev. to prove or declare validYour selfish actions do not validate your feelings for me.
Viabilityn. ability to be done in a practical or useful wayThe viability of the solution is questionable.
Vitaladj. urgently necessaryIt is vital that you respond by the deadline.
Vowv. to promiseMy brother quickly broke his vow to never eat chocolate again.
Warrantv. to prove to be reasonableWanting to look cool in front of your friends doesn’t warrant breaking the law.
Yieldn. production of an amountv. to give way to or surrender tov. to produce or supplyThe farmer’s annual pumpkin yield exceeded 10,000.Cars turning right on red must yield to oncoming traffic.Our experiment yielded many unique-looking vegetables.

Những điều cần biết về Math Test SAT và các thuật ngữ Toán Đại Số

Những điều cần biết về Math Test SA

Bố cục bài thi Math Test SAT

Math Test SAT bao gồm 2 phần chính là Toán dùng máy tính (Calculator) và Toán không dùng máy tính (No-Calculator).

Các câu hỏi trong 2 phần Math Test SAT đều bao gồm các câu hỏi dạng trắc nghiệm (Multiple-choice), các câu hỏi yêu cầu thí sinh đọc đề và phân tích đề để tự đưa ra câu trả lời (Grid-in), và ngoài ra trong bài thi còn có thêm một số câu hỏi giải quyết tình huống đòi hỏi thí sinh phải hiểu vấn đề một cách toàn diện và tổng hợp nhiều kiến thức khác nhau để giải bài.

No-Calculator SectionCalculator SectionTotal
Duration (minutes)255580
Total Questions203858

Phân bổ nội dung trong bài Math Test SAT

Nội dung của bài thi chủ yếu tập trung vào 3 phần chính: Đại số I, Đại số II và phân tích dữ liệu. Ngoài ra, bài thi còn có 1 phần phụ có nội dung liên quan đến Hình học và Lượng giác.

Căn bản về đại số (Heart of Algebra)

Bao gồm 19 câu. Các câu hỏi về đại số sẽ xoay quanh những nội dung như sau:

  • Phương trình tuyến tính (y = ax+b)
  • Cân bằng phương trình và bất phương trình
  • Giá trị tuyệt đối
  • Hệ phương trình bậc nhất
  • Bất đẳng thức tuyến tính

Xác suất thống kê (Problem Solving and Data Analysis)

Bao gồm 17 câu. Các câu hỏi về xác suất thống kê sẽ xoay quanh những nội dung như sau:

  • Phân tích và tính tỉ lệ, phần trăm
  • Phân tích mối liên hệ dựa trên đồ thị, biểu đồ
  • Tóm tắt dữ kiện định tính và định lượng

Phương trình bậc cao (Passport to Advanced Math)

Bao gồm 16 câu. Các câu hỏi về phương trình bậc cao sẽ xoay quanh những nội dung như sau:

  • Sử dụng ký hiệu hàm số
  • Thao tác và giải các phương trình thức tạp và đa thức
  • Giải phương trình bậc hai

Một số chủ đề khác như hình học, lượng giác, thể tích, diện tích,… (Additional Topics in Math)

Bao gồm 6 câu. Các câu hỏi về các chủ đề trên sẽ xoay quanh những nội dung như sau:

  • Tính diện tích bề mặt và thể tích
  • Áp dụng các định lý toán để tìm góc và các nội dung toán hình học liên quan đến đường thẳng, vector, tam giác và đường tròn
  • Ứng dụng tỉ số lượng giác và hàm số lượng giác

Một số thông tin bổ sung về Math Test SAT

Thay vì kiểm tra thí sinh về tất cả khía cạnh của toán học, Math Test trong kỳ thi SAT yêu cầu thí sinh sử dụng các dạng toán mà thí sinh sẽ gặp phải trong hầu hết các tình huống thực tế. Các câu hỏi trong Math Test được thiết kế để phản ánh được khả năng giải quyết vấn đề, các vấn đề này thí sinh sẽ gặp khi theo học các chuyên ngành liên quan đến Toán Học, Khoa học tự nhiên, và các kiến thức toán học này còn có thể phục vụ cho nghề nghiệp/ chuyên ngành thí sinh đang theo học hoặc sẽ làm sau này.

Để hiểu rõ hơn về việc giải quyết vấn đề toán học là như thế nào, sau đây sẽ là một ví dụ cụ thể được trích từ một bài thi toán SAT (phần thi không dùng máy tính):

Question:  A start-up company opened with 8 employees. The company’s growth plan assumes that 2 new employees will be hired each quarter (every 3 months) for the first 5 years. If an equation is written in the form y = ax + b to represent the number of employees, y, employed by the company x quarters after the company opened, what is the value of b ?

Một công ty khởi nghiệp thành lập với 8 nhân viên. Kế hoạch phát triển của công ty giả định rằng cứ mỗi quý (3 tháng) sẽ tuyển 2 nhân viên mới và tuyển như vậy trong vòng 5 năm đầu tiên. Nếu phương trình ở dạng y = ax + b để biểu thị cho số lượng nhân viên , trong đó y là số nhân viên được tuyển trong x số quý sau khi công ty mở. Tìm giá trị của b?

Bài giải:

x : tổng số quý sau 5 năm là 5 x 4 = 20 quý

Trong 20 quý này sẽ tuyển 20 x 2 = 40 nhân viên

y: tổng số nhân viên từ khi thành lập đến 5 năm sau là 40 + 8 = 48 nhân viên

Ta có phương trình:    y = ax +b

                                     48 = 2×20 + b

                                   => b = 8

Từ ví dụ trên có thể thấy rằng bài thi toán không chỉ đơn thuần là áp dụng công thức để tìm ra được đáp án, mà trong bài thi sẽ có những câu hỏi cần suy luận và cần phải phân tích kỹ thông tin thì mới giải được bài.

Thí sinh có thể dựa vào 3 bước sau đây để giải quyết các bài toán:

Bước 1: Xác định yêu cầu của bài. Ở bước này thí sinh có thể gạch chân, khoanh tròn các thông tin mấu chốt và xác định xem đề bài đang hỏi gì.

Bước 2: Sắp xếp những thông tin vừa khoanh để phân tích và tìm ra câu trả lời. Ở bước này thí sinh phải dựa vào từng dạng câu hỏi:

  • Đối với dạng bài đại số có câu hỏi ngắn, ít thông tin, thí sinh có thể lược qua bước 2 và đi thẳng vào việc tính toán, giải phương trình bằng cách áp dụng các công thức toán đại số. Dạng bài này thí sinh cố gắng vận dụng các thủ thuật toán và thực hiện thao tác cộng, trừ, nhân, chia, hay thay số để tìm ra câu trả lời từ phương trình đề bài cho.
  • Đối với dạng câu hỏi đoạn văn, thí sinh nên phân tích từng cụm từ để quy những thông tin đó ra thành phương trình, sau đó giải phương trình để tìm ra đáp án. ( xem lại bài ví dụ phía trên)
  • Đối với dạng bài hình học, thí sinh nên viết lại tất cả các thông tin lên hình và tìm kiếm các manh mối mà hình cung cấp. Nếu đề bài không cung cấp thì thí sinh phác thảo hình để dễ hình dung và giải câu hỏi hơn. Lưu ý: không nên dành quá nhiều thời gian cho 1 câu, khi cảm thấy đã tính qua 1,2 lần vẫn chưa chọn được kết quả thì nên làm qua câu tiếp theo và sau đó quay lại làm những câu còn phân vân cuối cùng.
  • Đối với dạng bài diễn giải số liệu liên quan đến biểu đồ hay đồ thị, thí sinh cần phân tích kỹ tên và thông tin các trục, đơn vị mà đề bài cung cấp để tìm ra câu trả lời.

Bước 3: (dành cho câu hỏi multiple-choice) Sau khi thực hiện xong bước 1 và 2, thí sinh xem xét các đáp án và chọn ra đáp án trùng khớp với kết quả vừa tìm được. Trong trường hợp không khớp đáp án, thí sinh làm lại bước 2 lần nữa và phân tích loại ra các kết quả bất hợp lý.

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